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In sentences with an active voice, the person or thing that performs the action (the doer) is the grammatical subject of the sentence; and the recipient of the action (the doee? ) is the object:

The researcher conducted an experiment

In sentences with a passive voice, it's the other way around: the recipient is the grammatical subject, and the doer is specified by a preposition (usually 'by'):

The experiment was conducted by the researcher

The passive voice is bad, mkay. Or least it tends to lack force and to take the speed out of a sentence. That's why most authorities caution against it:

An especially perverse passive voice arises when an active sentence without a recipient (i.e. if nothing is done to anyone) is made passive. In that case, 'it' needs to stand in for the missing recipient ('it is …'). This also happens when there strictly speaking is a recipient, but the recipient is not the subject of the passive sentence. Are you still following? Example! You often see this in academic writing, where authors happily commit crimes against humanity such as:

In the present article, it is investigated whether […]

Instead of:

Here we investigate whether […]

But what is the passive voice exactly? The examples above are clear: they are either clearly passive or clearly active. But things aren't always as clear. Consider:

I was excited by the idea of going out with her

Is this passive or active? If, like Wikipedia, you consider 'excited' to be an adjective, then …

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Ugly sentences and nice buts

I have something against the word 'however.' It's not used all that much in everyday language, only about 45 times for every million words (according to Subtlex). If that low frequency surprises you, you've been reading too much academic literature, in which 'however' is rampant. I don't have any reliable data on this, but based on a few randomly selected papers, I estimate that the frequency of 'however' in academic language is around 2000 per million. To put this into context: A frequency of 2000 per million would make 'however' one of the most commonly used words in academic English.

But 'however' is just the cumbersome cousin of the delicious, nimble, and flexible 'but' (frequency in everyday language: 4400 per million). Look:

1) It's an ugly sentence, but it has a nice 'but.'

Sounds good, right? If you like your prose staccato, you could even use a period instead of a comma:

2) It's an ugly sentence. But it has a nice 'but.'

The difference in meaning (if any) between 1 and 2 is subtle, but my reading is something like this: In 1, the nice 'but' makes the sentence less ugly; it almost says: The sentence would have been ugly, if it weren't for its nice 'but.' But in 2, the ugliness and nice 'but' of the sentence are two cold facts; an ugly sentence is an ugly sentence is an ugly sentence—nice 'but' or no.

You could even use neither a comma nor a period, in which …

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3 poorly designed everyday things

Most things around us are designed; they have been created by other people to serve some purpose. Few things are designed perfectly: Door handles turn the wrong way; chairs are uncomfortable; tables are too high or too low; etcetera. It happens. No-one nor thing is perfect.

But occasionally you come across something that has been designed so poorly that you wonder what, if anything, went through the designer's mind. These are precious gems of stupidity that not only violate principles of good design (which is excusable, because good design is difficult), but seem to have been constructed without any common sense at all.

Here are three random examples of poor design that I came across in the past week.

The first is a brand-new bathroom at the University of Lyon II. New and clean bathrooms are rare in France, so coming across a bathroom like this is, in itself, a happy occasion. But do you notice the toilet-paper dispenser? Do you notice where it is? Exactly. (You may be thinking: Surely there are also toilet-paper dispensers inside the actual toilets? There aren't.)

Apparently there was a designer who felt that it was a good idea to put the toilet-paper dispenser outside of the toilets. We can only guess what went through his or her mind, but we can be sure that it wasn't common sense.

I hope there haven't been any casualties yet: People who underestimated before going in. But there will be. Oh yes, there will be.

The second …

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Real life with an Ubuntu tablet—and only an Ubuntu tablet

Imagine: You're leaving for a long work-related trip. What, at the very least, do you take with you? Why, a laptop, of course! A brand-new one, a fancy one, so that you can be just as productive while traveling as at the office. (Not that you will be. Most of your trip will be spent socializing, drinking at hotel bars, and exploring new cities. But you could be, and that's the point.)

But then disaster strikes: Your fancy laptop breaks down, just days before the trip. No time to have it repaired, so you decide to take an old backup laptop instead. Not as fancy, but it will do. But then disaster strikes again: The evening before your trip, you spill coffee on the backup laptop. Dead!

This is more or less what happened to me.

I suddenly found myself laptopless, right before a series of contiguous work-related trips. So I was forced to boldly go where no man has gone before (it's not bold if you've been forced, I suppose, but no matter—I went there): I brought my Ubuntu tablet along as my main computer. The BQ Aquaris M10 FHD to be exact.

My makeshift hotel-room office, centered around the BQ Aquaris M10 Ubuntu tablet.

So what's Ubuntu, and what's an Ubuntu tablet?

Ubuntu is a free operating system, an alternative to Windows or Mac OS. I love Ubuntu, and it was installed on both of my late laptops. Regular Ubuntu is for desktop and laptop computers. Ubuntu …

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#Brexit: How much European research money goes to the UK?

The Brexit has caused considerable concern among British researchers—and perhaps for good reason. As in other European countries, research in the United Kingdom (UK) is funded to a considerable and rapidly increasing extent by the European Union (EU), or rather the European Research Council (ERC). And this funding is jeopardized if the UK leaves the EU.

Let's look at some numbers to put this concern into context. How much does the UK benefit from EU research funding, compared to other European countries?

Here I will focus on ERC grants, which are one of the main channels through which the EU funds research. ERC grants are awarded through a competition that is open to researchers from all EU member states, and also several non-EU countries that have special agreements with the EU. Grants are awarded based on scientific quality, and not based on the financial contributions of the participating countries; for example, Germany shouldn't (and doesn't) get most of the grants only because they contributed most of the money.

The figure below shows the number of ERC grants awarded to large (population > 30 million) countries that have received funding from the ERC. These numbers are based on the total number of ERC starting, consolidator, and advanced grants between 2007 and 2015. Green bars show the total number of grants; pink bars show the number of grants per million inhabitants, that is, corrected for population size.

Clearly, the UK receives far, far, far more ERC grants than other large countries. After …

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